In the context of the TvT project, we understand the following working definitions as:
People whose gender identity differs from the gender they were assigned at birth, and those who wish to portray their gender in a way that differs from the one they were assigned at birth. Among them are those people who feel they have to – or those who prefer/choose to – present themselves in ways that conflict with the social expectations of the gender role assigned to them at birth. They may express this difference through language, clothing, accessories, cosmetics, or body modifications. Trans people and gender-diverse people include, among many others, transsexual and transgender people, trans men and trans women, cross-dressers, agender, multigender, genderqueer, and gender non-binary people, as well as intersex people who relate to or identify as any of the above.
Also included are those who self-identify or relate to the terms “trans people” or “gender-diverse people” in international contexts, such as people who see themselves as a part of local, indigenous, or sub cultural groups – e.g. bandhu (Bangladesh), hijra and thirunangai (India), khwaja sira (Pakistan), meti (Nepal), kathoey (Thailand), waria (Indonesia), mak nyah, thirutambi, and kua xing nan (Malaysia), transpinay and transpinoy (the Philippines) and bin-sing-jan and kwaa-sing-bit (Hong Kong) in Asia; fakafifine (Niue), fa’afafine (Samoa and Tokelau), fa’afatama (Samoa), leiti (Tonga), palopa (Papua New Guinea), akava’ine (Cook Islands), whakawahine and tangata ira tane (New Zealand) and Sistergirl and Brotherboy (Australia) in the Pacific; travesti (Latin America), muxhe (Mexico), men and women of trans experience (Caribbean and United States of America), and two-spirit Native identities (North America).
Although some gender-diverse people feel represented by the umbrella term “trans,” others do not, and vice-versa.
Transphobia is a matrix of cultural and personal beliefs, opinions, attitudes and aggressive behaviors based on prejudice, disgust, fear and/or hatred directed against individuals or groups who do not conform to or who transgress societal gender expectations and norms. Transphobia particularly affects individuals whose lived gender identity or gender expression differs from the gender role assigned to them at birth, and it manifests itself in various ways, e.g., as direct physical violence, transphobic speech and insulting, discriminatory media coverage and social exclusion. It also includes institutionalized forms of discrimination such as criminalization, pathologization, or stigmatization of non-conforming gender identities and gender expressions.
TRANSPHOBIC HATE CRIME
A transphobic hate crime is a crime or incident in which an aggressor is motivated by prejudice, hostility or hatred toward persons who transgress or do not conform to societal gender expectations and norms. Individuals whose lived gender identity or gender expression differs from the gender role assigned to them at birth are particularly affected by hate crimes. Transphobic hate crimes are motivated by transphobia, which is generally acted out through a high level of physical violence and moralistic contempt for the victim.
Transphobic hate crimes have a deep impact not only on the victim but on the whole group or community to which the victim belongs. Thus, transphobic hate crimes affect social cohesion and stability, not only with regard to the trans community, but also the society in which the community is embedded.
In countries with hate crime legislation, the hate crime concept forms the legal basis for sentences or aggravation of sentences due to the intent of the perpetrator to discriminate.
Transrespect is not simply the absolute absence of any form of Transphobia: it is the expression of a deep form of respect for and recognition of individuals whose lived gender identity or gender expression differs from the gender role assigned to them at birth, or those individuals who are assigned at birth with, and raised in a different gender role than, those known in binary male-female gender systems.
Transrespect includes the acknowledgment of the unique contributions these persons can provide for the society. Thus, Transrespect acknowledges the cultural and social benefits of gender non-conformity, gender liminality or gender diversity for society. Transrespect is manifested in individual behaviours as well as in cultural and societal expressions, e.g., in the form of institutionalized, culturally embedded, specific social or religious roles and acknowledgment of new social roles.
Transrespect thus benefits not only certain individuals or minorities, but the society as a whole.