In the context of the TvT project, we understand the following working definitions as:
In binary (male-female) gender systems, trans people include, those who have a gender identity that is different from the gender they were assigned at birth, and those who wish to portray their gender identity in a different way than the gender they were assigned at birth. It includes those people who feel they have to — or who prefer or choose to — present themselves in a way that conflicts with the social expectations of the gender role assigned to them at birth, whether they express this difference through language, clothing, accessories, cosmetics or body modification. This definition includes, among many others, transsexual and transgender people, transvestites, cross dressers, no gender, liminal gender, multigender, and genderqueer people, as well as intersex and gender variant people who relate to or identify as any of the above.
Due to the diversity of cultural concepts and subcultural self-definitions, and especially due to the lack of another globally valid umbrella term, this definition also includes those who identify with local, indigenous or subculture-specific terms (e.g. bantut, koti, ladyboy, pengkid, tom, travesti, waria, xanith, etc.) and simultaneously self-identify as trans people or as any of the above. Furthermore, it comprises those people in non-binary gender-systems who are assigned a different gender than male or female at birth (e.g. fa’affafine, fa’atama, hijra, kathoey, mahu, muxé, nadleehe, two spirit, winkte, etc.) and who simultaneously self-identify as trans people or as any of the above.
Transphobia is a matrix of cultural and personal beliefs, opinions, attitudes and aggressive behaviors based on prejudice, disgust, fear and/or hatred directed against individuals or groups who do not conform to or who transgress societal gender expectations and norms. Transphobia particularly affects individuals whose lived gender identity or gender expression differs from the gender role assigned to them at birth, and it manifests itself in various ways, e.g., as direct physical violence, transphobic speech and insulting, discriminatory media coverage and social exclusion. It also includes institutionalized forms of discrimination such as criminalization, pathologization, or stigmatization of non-conforming gender identities and gender expressions.
TRANSPHOBIC HATE CRIME
A transphobic hate crime is a crime or incident in which an aggressor is motivated by prejudice, hostility or hatred toward persons who transgress or do not conform to societal gender expectations and norms. Individuals whose lived gender identity or gender expression differs from the gender role assigned to them at birth are particularly affected by hate crimes. Transphobic hate crimes are motivated by transphobia, which is generally acted out through a high level of physical violence and moralistic contempt for the victim.
Transphobic hate crimes have a deep impact not only on the victim but on the whole group or community to which the victim belongs. Thus, transphobic hate crimes affect social cohesion and stability, not only with regard to the trans community, but also the society in which the community is embedded.
In countries with hate crime legislation, the hate crime concept forms the legal basis for sentences or aggravation of sentences due to the intent of the perpetrator to discriminate.
Transrespect is not simply the absolute absence of any form of Transphobia: it is the expression of a deep form of respect for and recognition of individuals whose lived gender identity or gender expression differs from the gender role assigned to them at birth, or those individuals who are assigned at birth with, and raised in a different gender role than, those known in binary male-female gender systems.
Transrespect includes the acknowledgment of the unique contributions these persons can provide for the society. Thus, Transrespect acknowledges the cultural and social benefits of gender non-conformity, gender liminality or gender diversity for society. Transrespect is manifested in individual behaviours as well as in cultural and societal expressions, e.g., in the form of institutionalized, culturally embedded, specific social or religious roles and acknowledgment of new social roles.
Transrespect thus benefits not only certain individuals or minorities, but the society as a whole.